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Zah─ârul este otrav─â

Consum├ónd zah─âr nevoia de vitamina C a organismului cre┼čte. Zah─ârul comercial consumat este descompus (hidroliza intestinal─â) ├«n glucoz─â ┼či fructoz─â.

  •  Fructoza se g─âse┼čte ├«n legume ┼či fructe ÔÇô natural.
  •  Fructoza liber─â, cristalizat─â (extras─â ┼či rafinat─â industrial sau ├«n laboratoare)* - produs sintetic.

* Fructoza este extrasă din amidonul de porumb fiind economic mai ieftin[1] ca zahărul; un proces automatizat, rafinare, depozitare (pierdere locuri de muncă => inflaţie economică).

Fiind foarte ieftin─â ┼či mai dulce ca zah─ârul, fructoza comercial─â (High Fructose Corn Syrup numit mai nou ┼či sirop din porumb[2] pentru c─â HFCS are reputa┼úie proast─â) este folosit─â la scar─â larg─â ca umplutur─â ieftin─â ├«n majoritatea produselor: ├«n b─âuturile r─âcoritoare (ap─â cu zah─âr), lapte pentru bebelu┼či, produse de patiserie, gemuri, siropuri, bomboane etc...

,,De remarcat c─â fructoza se sustrage controlului exercitat de c─âtre enzima limitant─â de vitez─â a glicolizei, 6-FF-1K, ceea ce-i permite s─â alimenteze necontrolat neolipogeneza cu substrate ┼či s─â aib─â, ├«n consecin┼ú─â, ac┼úiune aterogen─â[3]ÔÇŁ = Simplu spus fructoza ├«ngra┼č─â ┼či duce la ateroscleroz─â (blocarea arterelor -> infarct miocardic).

Consumul de zah─âr ┼či fructoz─â ad─âugat alimentelor[4] (sucuri/ b─âuturi nealcoolice, cereale, p├óine) a crescut global ├«n doar 3 decenii[5] (valori America).

America este cel mai mare produc─âtor de fructoz─â.

Industria siropului de fructoza (HFCS, zah─âr din porumb, sirop de porumb) este dominat─â de 5 companii, cota de pia┼ú─â ├«n 1994: Archer Daniels Midland Company 32%; Tate and Lyle 23%; Cargill 19 %; Corn Products Company International (CPC) 9%; American Maize 9%[6]. Aceste companii fac parte din asocia┼úia de comer┼ú ÔÇťCorn Refiners AssociationÔÇŁ[7] scopul asocia┼úiei fiind rela┼úii cu publicul, lobby (┼čpag─â), educare[8], reclame, dona┼úii politice.

Fructoza nu este glucoz─â, fructoza este metabolizat─â diferit dar ,,exper┼úiiÔÇŁ au considerat c─â este bun─â. ,,Fructoza este metabolizat─â doar de ficat, pune presiune metabolic─â pe el, ficatul o converte┼čte ├«n trigliceride (gr─âsime) ┼či le trimite cu lipoproteinele ├«n corp[9]ÔÇŁ.

 

Ani

Consum fructoz─â*

1977-1978

37 g/zi = ~ 8% din aportul energetic total în America[10]

1987-1988

39 g/zi = ~ 9% din aportul energetic total în America[11]

1988-1994

55 g/zi = ~ 10% din aportul energetic total în America[12]

1994-1996

82 g/zi = ~ 16% din aportul energetic total în America[13]

* Aproximativ 1/3 vine din cantitate provine din fructe ┼či legume; 2/3 ad─âugate artificial ├«n b─âuturi ┼či m├ónc─âruri.

O tendin┼ú─â similar─â a cre┼čterii ├«ndulcitorilor ┼či consumului de fructoz─â se ├«nt├ómpl─â la nivel global[14]

La prima vedere scopul zah─ârului ┼či a fructozei ├«n m├óncarea industrial─â este acela de a da gust acesteia ┼či de conservant, dar scopul zaharurilor ├«n alimente este de a p─âc─âli sim┼úurile ┼či de a consuma mai mult (dulciurile nu te satur─â[15] ├«ns─â ├«ngra┼č─â)

Multe investiga┼úii au sugerat c─â excesul inger─ârii de fructoz─â (to┼úi se g├óndesc numai la sucuri c─âut├ónd calorii[16]) ar fi cauza epidemiei de obezitate global─â ┼či a sindromului metabolic[17]

Acum ┼čtim c─â fructoza extras─â, concentrat─â ┼či reintrodus─â ├«n alimentele gata preg─âtite (produsele finite) are rol lipogenic[18] (├«ngra┼č─â) dar ┼či ├«mboln─âve┼čte[19]: duce la rezisten┼ú─â insulinic─â[20] [21] (diabet), boli cardiovasculare[22] [23] [24], steatoza hepatic─â[25] (ficat gras non-alcoolic), hipertensiune[26], sindrom metabolic[27], cancer[28].

 

Hipertensiunea arterial─â la adolescen┼úi este ├«n cre┼čtere[29], [30] (este ceva normal azi sa vezi copii cu sticle de suc ├«n m├ón─â = americanizare). Reduc├ónd fructoza, b─âuturile r─âcoritoare, se reduce ┼či obezitatea[31].

 

 Consum de b─âuturi ├«n Mexic ┼či America[32] pe grupuri de v├órste
(1 la 4, 5 la 11, 12 la 18, ┼či Ôëą19 ani) 1999 - 2006

 

2 studii au comparat dieta cu fructoz─â versus dieta f─âr─â fructoz─â:

+ au oferit hrană participanţilor controlând dieta.

- nu au fost incluse ┼či femei ca participan┼úi la studiu.

- perioad─â scurt─â.

Au g─âsit c─â fructoza are efecte adverse asupra lipidelor serice. 

Studiul 1: Hallfrish et al.[33] cu 7.5% ┼či 15% dieta pe fructoz─â pe o perioad─â de 5 s─âpt─âm├óni raporteaz─â la ambele procente de fructoz─â:

1) LDL (lipoprotein─â ce transport─â colesterol) crescut la b─ârba┼úii s─ân─âto┼či ┼či hiperinsulinemici

2) Trigliceride crescute la bărbaţii hiperinsulinemici.

Studiul 2: Reiser et al. [34] au gasit că dieta cu 20% fructoză consumată pentru 5 săptămâni:

1) La b─ârba┼úii s─ân─âto┼či:

Trigliceridele, Colesterolul Total, LDL (lipoprotein─â ce transport─â colesterol) si acidul uric au cre┼čteri semnificative dup─â consumul de fructoz─â comparat cu consumul de amidon din porumb.

(In the nonhyperinsulinemic men total triglycerides, total and low- density lipoprotein cholesterol and uric acid were significantly greater after the consumption of fructose than after cornstarch).

2) La bărbaţii hiperinsulinemici: (supraponderali sau diabetici)

Consumul de fructoz─â comparat cu amidonul din porumb a crescut semnificativ valorile:

Trigliceridele totale, Colesterol Total si VLDL (lipoprotein─â ce transport─â colesterol) apoproteine B-100, C-II, C-III ┼či acidul uric.

(In the hyperinsulinemic men the intake of fructose as compared with cornstarch significantly increased total triglycerides and their lipoprotein distribution...).

 

R─âm├ónem cu ├«ntrebarea dr. Richard J. Johnson: oare ingestia excesiv─â de fructoz─â ┼či acidul uric crescut (uricemie) ar putea provoca diabetul tip 2?[35]

Se pare c─â reducerea fructozei scade presiunea arterial─â ┼či inflama┼úia la pacien┼úii cu boli renale cronice[36].

 

  • Concluzii: 
  •  Zaharurile ├«ngra┼č─â indiferent de ÔÇťnum─ârul de caloriiÔÇŁ (persoanele obeze m─ân├ónc─â mai pu┼úin).
  •  Fructoza este otrav─â.
  •  Zah─ârul contine fructoz─â => zah─ârul este otrav─â.
  •  Poate, ├«n sf├ór┼čit, medicina afl─â cauza producerii HTA (hipertensiunii arteriale).
  •  Dulciurile lichide (sucurile) ac┼úioneaz─â mai rapid ┼či ├«nr─âut─â┼úesc totul.
  •  Singura schimbare major─â ├«n alimenta┼úie de 100 de ani este introducerea zah─ârului ┼či fructozei.
  •  America export─â fructoz─â, ├«ntreaga lor cultur─â este bazat─â pe dulciuri.
 
 
 

Referinţe:


1. Hanover LM, White JS. Manufacturing, composition and applications of fructose. Am J Clin Nutr. 1993;58:724SÔÇô32S

3. Biochimie Medicala, Mic Tratat; prof. dr.Veronica Dinu, prof. dr. Eugen Trutia, prof. dr. Elena Popa-Cristea, prof. dr. Aurora Popescu; pag. 380, Editura Medicala Bucuresti, 1996

4. High-fructose corn syrup: is this what's for dinner? http://www.ajcn.org/content/88/6/1722S.full?sid=74c11c1f-d924-45d7-8e5b-8ab639bd292a

5. Park YK, Yetley EA. Intakes and food sources of fructose in the United States. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;58(suppl):737S-47S

6. A Short History and Production Statistics of the Corn Sweeteners Industry http://www.carrtracks.com/crnsweet.htm

7. Corn Refiners Association Member Companies http://www.corn.org/cra-members/member-companies/

8. High Fructose Corn Syrup's Latest PR Target: Mommy Bloggers 

9. Metabolism of Disaccharides and Monosaccharides with Emphasis on Sugar and Fructose and their Lipogenic Potential, Eleazar Shafrir, (1991).

10. Park YK, Yetley EA. Intake and food sources of fructose in the United States. Am J Clin Nutr. 1993;58:737SÔÇô47S Abstract

11. Sigman-Grant M, Keast DR. Addendum to Am J Clin Nutr 1995;62 (Suppl):178SÔÇô194S. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65:1572ÔÇô4  Full Text 

12. Bialostosky K, Wright JD, Kennedy-Stephenson J, McDowell M, Johnson CL. Dietary intake of macronutrients, micronutrients and other dietary constituents: United States 1988ÔÇô94. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 11. 2002;245:1ÔÇô58

13. Guthrie JF, Morton JF. Food sources of added sweeteners in the diets of Americans. J Am Diet Assoc 2000 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10646004?dopt=Abstract

14. Popkin BM, Nielsen SJ. The sweetening of the world's diet. Obes Res. 2003;11:1325ÔÇô32 Abstract

15. Glycaemic response to foods: impact on satiety and long-term weight regulation http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17610996

16. Effect of drinking soda sweetened with aspartame or high-fructose corn syrup on food intake and body weight Abstract 

17. Bray GA, Nielsen SJ, Popkin BM. Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79:537-43.

18. Relation between consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and childhood obesity: a prospective, observational analysis Full Text

19. Intermediary metabolism of fructose, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Peter A Mayes (1993).

20. Stanhope KL, Havel PJ 2008 Fructose consumption: potential mechanisms for its effects to increase visceral adiposity and induce dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Curr Opin Lipidol 19:16ÔÇô24 Abstract 

21. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, Weight Gain, and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in Young and Middle-Aged Women Abstract

22. Potential role of sugar (fructose) in the epidemic of hypertension, obesity and the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease; Richard J Johnson et al, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, (2007).

23. Sugar Intake and Myocardial Infarction John Yudkin, 1967 http://www.ajcn.org/content/20/5/503.abstract

24. Greater Fructose Consumption Is Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk Markers and Visceral Adiposity in Adolescents http://jn.nutrition.org/content/142/2/251.abstract

25. Fructose: a highly lipogenic nutrient implicated in insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and the metabolic syndrome http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20823452

26. Johnson RJ, Segal MS, Sautin Y, Nakagawa T, Feig DI, Kang DH, et al. Potential role of sugar (fructose) in the epidemic of hypertension, obesity and the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;86:899-906

27. Fructose and metabolic diseases: new findings, new questions Abstract http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20471804

28. Fructose as a carbon source induces an aggressive phenotype in MDA-MB-468 breast tumor cells. 2010 Sep;37(3):615-22 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20664930

29. Sorof JM. Prevalence and consequence of systolic hypertension in children. Am J Hypertens 2002; 15: 57SÔÇô60S http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11866232?dopt=Abstract

30. Dekkers JC, Snieder H, Van Den Oord EJ, Treiber FA. Moderators of blood pressure development from childhood to adulthood: a 10-year longitudinal study. J Pediatr 2002; 141: 770ÔÇô9 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12461492?dopt=Abstract

31. Ebbeling CB, Feldman HA, Osganian SK, Chomitz VR, Ellenbogen SJ, Ludwig DS. Effects of decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption on body weight in adolescents: a randomized, controlled pilot study. Pediatrics 2006; 117: 673ÔÇô80. Abstract

32. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Vasanti S. Malik, MSc; Barry M. Popkin, PhD; George A. Bray, MD; Jean-Pierre Despr├ęs, PhD; Frank B. Hu, MD, PhD

33. Hallfrisch J, Reiser S, Prather ES. Blood lipid distribution of hyperinsulinemic men consuming three levels of fructose. Am J Clin Nutr. 1983;37:740ÔÇô8. Abstract 

34. Reiser S, Powell AS, Scholfield DJ, Panda P, Ellwood KC, Canary JJ. Blood lipids, lipoproteins, apoproteins, and uric acid in men fed diets containing fructose or high-amylase cornstarch. Am J Clin Nutr. 1989;49:832ÔÇô9 Abstract

35. Hypothesis: Could Excessive Fructose Intake and Uric Acid Cause Type 2 Diabetes? http://edrv.endojournals.org/content/30/1/96.abstract

36. Low-fructose diet lowers blood pressure and inflammation in patients with chronic kidney disease Abstract 

 

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